## Saturday, February 6, 2016

### A week without FFT

The Jan 18 - Jan 24 week started with TopCoder SRM 679 on Wednesday (problems, results, top 5 on the left). The hard problem in this round is somewhat weird: the solution is quite straightforward, but somehow a few people, including myself, missed it and tried to squeeze in an incorrect FFT-based solution that obviously times out. It didn't stop tourist, who won the round with an impressive 350+-point margin.

Here's how the problem went: you were given 500 bags, each containing a lot of cards, with each card containing an integer between 1 and 500 (more precisely, you have a 500x500 matrix, describing how many cards contain each integer in each bag). You're also given a set of "good" integers, each between 1 and 1000. For each pair of bags, you need to answer the following question: how many ways are there to pick a card from the first bag and a card from the second bag in such a way that the sum of their numbers is a good number?

The correct solution runs in O(n^3), while the somewhat obvious FFT-based approach is only O(n^3*logn), and thus too slow. Can you see the O(n^3) one?

Facebook Hacker Cup selection continued with Round 2 on Saturday (problems with Facebook login, results with Facebook login, top 5 on the left). This was the first round where the time of submitting one's solutions was taken into account, and thus the first round where the contestants were competing against each other, not just against the problems. Eryx has claimed the first place with a solid margin - congratulations!

The problems were quite technical again, but the hardest problem at least allowed one to simplify the solution using a creative idea. You were given a tree with 1000 nodes, and needed to paint it with 30 colors, with the cost of painting each node with each colors given as a matrix. So far, the solution is very straightforward - just pick the cheapest color for each node. However, there was a small twist: you also paid a given penalty P for each node that has neighbors of the same color. You pay P only once per such node, no matter how many neighbors of the same color does it have. Can you solve this problem in O(N*K4) (N=1000, K=30)? How about O(N*K3)?

Let me also explain the solution to a problem from the previous post: you were given a tree with 100000 vertices, and at most 100000 queries. Each query highlighted some subset of vertices, and to answer a query you needed to compute the minimum number of non-highlighted vertices to remove that would leave all highlighted vertices disconnected, or to report there isn’t a way (in case two highlighted vertices are directly connected with an edge). The total number of highlighted vertices in all queries also doesn’t exceed 100000.

First, let's learn to solve the problem for just one query. It's not hard to see that this can be done greedily: we go from leaves to the root, returning a boolean value from the subtree: does this subtree contain a highlighted vertex? When a vertex has more than one subtree containing a highlighted vertex, or when its parent is highlighted and it has at least one highlighted child, we need to remove it.

Given that our solution returns just one boolean value for each subtree, we can handle 64 queries at once by returning a bitmask from it, using bitwise operations to implement the logic described above. This is (arguably?) not an asymptotic optimization, but 1000002/64 for this to pass under the time limit.

Thanks for reading, and check back soon for the summary of the last week of January!